Four Hundred years back yellow fever was detected in Africa and America. Yellow fever is mainly spread through mosquito. One of the symptom of yellow fever is Jaundice. This fever damages liver and causes Jaundice. Yellow fever virus (YFV) also called Flavivirus in medical terminology, will cause the fever and may be an epidemic outburst in tropical area. In these rain forests the temperature will be humid and helps mosquitoes to breed. This virus is carried by female mosquito. They carry this virus after picking it up from affected monkeys and other humans and transmit to new humans. Otherwise this virus is spread proof from people to people by any type of contact.
Transmission of Yellow Fever
Yellow fever is transmitted by mosquito. The transmission of the virus is from monkeys to humans and from humans to humans through mosquito. yellow fever can be categorized into three types.
Jungle yellow fever: Monkeys are infected with yellow fever with mosquito byte and then transmit to other mosquito when they feed on them and when byte the humans that enter the forests will get the virus affected. Those who work in the forest and especially young men and women will get effected by this virus fast. (e.g. for logging).
Intermediate yellow fever: In Africa the yellow fever is an epidemic The virus spreed fast in both monkeys and humans as they live close to each other in dense forest area of Africa. Humans come in frequent contact with infected mosquitoes and transmit the virus across. The virus spreads to the surrounding villages like wild fire.
Urban yellow fever: The virus spread rampantly wherever these is dense population and non immune people get effected with the virus and the virus will become an outbreak epidemic.
Cause of Yellow Fever
The viral disease Yellow fever belongs to the flavi virus group. In East and West Africa generic type virus called topo group and in south Africa only one type of virus is established since 1974.
Symptoms of Yellow Fever
Like many other virus the incubation period is 3 to 6 days and takes two forms and symptoms are as under.The first phase have no visible symptoms.In the second form
- Muscle pain (with prominent backache)
- Loss of appetite
- Nausea and/or vomiting.
- some times high fever is with slow pulse. After three to four days most patients improve and their symptoms disappear.
Treatment for yellow Fever:
There is no particular treatment for this except prevention and vaccination. However under normal conditions the treatment could be simple.
- Oral re hydration salts
- Bacterial infection is treated with antibiotics.
- Intensive care may improve the outcome for seriously ill patients, but is rarely available in poorer, developing countries.
Prevention: Prevention is a best suggestion and it is by vaccination. Control mosquitoes and prevent spread of virus. A single dose of vaccine gives protection for 10 years. Vaccine gives protection effect within a week. Brazil, Australia and the United States reported serious adverse effects including deaths and investigating the outcome.
Precautions to avoid mosquito bytes:
when on tour to those effected areas, take care of mosquito’s bytes by wearing loose-fitting, long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and always remember to apply mosquito repellents. Repellent that contains permeation should be applied to your clothing. If possible stay in air-conditioning rooms or cover the room room with mosquito screens. Keep your surrounding clean in all effected areas and sleep in mosquito netted bed and lit a mosquito coil.
The best way to prevent from dangerous mosquito bytes and getting exposed to deadly disease like yellow fever, dengue and malaria is by protecting yourself against mosquito bites. Mosquito eradication programs are undertaken by many government agencies but with no expected results. Mosquito,cockroaches and rats will survive even in most devastated environments causing menace to public.
Recent Outbreak of yellow fever Recorded in the following countries and years.
24 April 2014 – Yellow fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo
3 December 2013 – Yellow fever in Sudan – update
8 October 2013 – Yellow fever in Cameroon
14 June 2013 – Yellow fever in the Democratic Republic of Congo
31 May 2013 – Yellow fever in Ethiopia
14 February 2013 – Yellow fever in Chad (From the pages of WHO)