Leishmaniasis is Caused by Infected Sand Flies
Leishmaniasis is a killer disease and it is found in 7th century BC
From 7th century BC descriptions of conspicuous lesions are discovered on tablets from King Ashurbanipal. Some of which may have been derived from even earlier texts from 1500 to 2500 BC. Leishmaniasis, which causes skin sores, and visceral (VIS-er-al) leishmaniasis, which affects some of the internal organs of the body (for example, spleen, liver, and bone marrow)
How do people get infected with Leishmania parasites?
You will be infected when infected female sand flies bites you (Sand flies become infected by biting an infected animal or person). Sand flies do not make noise when they fly and they are smaller than mosquito and so their presence and bites are unnoticed by humans. Sand flies usually are most active in twilight, evening, and night-time hours (from dusk to dawn). Although sand flies are less active during the hottest time of the day, they may bite if they are disturbed (for example, if a person brushes up against the trunk of a tree or other site where sand flies are resting).
Some types (species) of Leishmania parasites may also be spread by blood transfusions or contaminated needles (needle sharing). Congenital transmission (spread from a pregnant woman to her baby) has been reported
Prevention of Leishmaniasis: Like any other tropical disease, this also spread through flies and the best prevention is by covering the body with cloths, avoiding sand fly bites, and using insect repellents with added ingredient like N,N-diethylmetatoluamide, using mosquito nets. These mosquito nets must be closely nested because sand flies are small than mosquito. Cover pet animals also with proper clothing to avoid spread through them. Keep surrounding clean and spray repellent in around the area.
More information from websites like Centers for Disease Control and World Health Organization
Facts about Leishmaniasis