Tularemia also called Deer Fly Fever or Rabbit Fever

Tularemia a rare disease which is infectious

Tularemia spreads in many ways

  • Deer Fly bites
  • Through Rabbits – Skin Contact with infected animals
  • inhalation of contaminated dusts or aerosols
  • bio terrorism

This disease is caused by bacterium Francisella tularensis.

Skin Contact and Bites cause Tularemia

 Symptoms of Tularemia

Symptoms of tularemia vary depending on how the bacteria enters the body. Illness ranges from mild to life-threatening  fever of 104°F. Symptoms include irritation and inflammation of eye and swelling of lymph glands in front of the ear Or pharyngeal This form results from eating or drinking contaminated food or water. Patients with or or pharyngeal tularemia may have sore throat, mouth ulcers, tonsillitis, and swelling of lymph glands in the neck.

Other Names of Tularemia

Depending on where the organism enters the body different names are given Ulcer Glandular ( A skin ulcer appears at the site where the organism entered the body. The ulcer is accompanied by swelling of regional lymph glands, usually in the armpit or groin) or Glandular ( Similar to ulcer glandular generally acquired through the bite of an infected tick or deer fly or from handling sick or dead animals) or Ocular Glandular ( This form occurs when the bacteria enter through the eye. This can occur when a person is butchering an infected animal and touches his or her eyes. Pneumonic tularemia is  most serious form of tularemia. Symptoms include cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. This form results from breathing dusts or aerosols containing the organism. It can also occur when other forms of tularemia (e.g. ulcer glandular) are left untreated and the bacteria spread through the blood stream to the lungs.

Diagnosis & Treatment

The symptoms can be mistaken for other common disease and so Tularemia can be difficult to diagnose. It is a rare disease.

Proper questioning from a doctor on exposure to   tick and deer fly bites, or contact with sick or dead animals will improve the treatment process.. Blood tests and cultures can help confirm the diagnosis. Antibiotics such as  streptomycin, gentamicin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin. 10 to 21 days treatment depending on the stage of illness and the medication used. Although symptoms may last for several weeks, most patients completely recover. . Normally patients will be recovered after treatment.

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Educational aspects of Tularemia